KWANG-GAE is named after the famous Kwang-Gae-Toh-Wang, the 19th King of the Koguryo Dynasty, who regained all the lost territories including the greater part of Manchuria. The diagram represents the expansion and recovery of lost territory. The 39 movements refer to the first two figures of 391 A. D., the year he came to the throne
Po-Eun is the pseudonym of a loyal subject Chong Mong-Chu (1400AD) who was a famous poet and whose poem "I would not serve a second master though I might be crucified a hundred times" is known to every Korean. He was also a pioneer in the field of physics. The pattern diagram represents his unerring loyalty to the king and country towards the end of the Koyro Dynasty.
Ge-Baek is named after Ge-Baek, a great general in the Baek Je Dynasty (660AD) the pattern diagram represents his severe and strict military discipline.
Eui-Am is the pseudonym of Son Byong Hi, leader of the Korean independence movement on 1st March 1919. The 45 movements relate to his age when he changed the name of Dong Hak (Oriental Culture) to Chondo Kyo (Heavenly Way Religion) in 1905. The pattern diagram represents his indomitable spirit displayed when dedicating himself to the prosperity of his nation.
CHOONG-JANG is the pseudonym given to General Kim Duk Ryang who lived during the Yi Dynasty, 14th century. This pattern ends with a left-hand attack to symbolize the tragedy of his death at 27 in prison before he was able to reach full maturity
Juche is the philosophical idea that man is the master of everything and therefore decides and determines his destiny. It is said that this idea was rooted on the Beakdu Mountain that symbolises the spirit of the Korean people. The diagram represents the Baekdu Mountain.
Sam-Il denotes the historical date of the independence movement of Korea, which began throughout the country on 1st March 1919. The 33 movements in this pattern stand for the 33 patriots who planned the movement.
YOO-SIN is named after General Kim Yoo Sin, a commanding general during the Silla Dynasty. The 68 movements refer to the last two figures of 668 A.D., the year Korea was united. The ready posture signifies a sword drawn on the right rather than left side, symbolizing Yoo Sin's mistake of following his Kings' orders to fight with foreign forces against his own nation
Choi-Yong is named after General Choi-Yong, Premier and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces during the 14th Century Koryo Dynasty. Choi-Yong was greatly respected for his loyalty, patriotism, and humility. He was executed by his subordinate commanders, headed by General Yi Sung Gae, who later became the first king of the Yi Dynasty.
Yong-Gae is named after a famous general during the Koguryo Dynasty, Yon Gae Somun. The 49 movements refer to the last two figures of 649 AD, the year he forced the Tang Dynasty to quit Korea after destroying nearly 300,000 Chinese troops at Ansi Sung.
Ul-Ji is named after General Ul-Ji Moon Dok who successfully defended Korea against a Tang's invasion force of nearly 1,000,000 soldiers led by Yang Je in 612 AD. Ul-Ji employing hit and run guerrilla tactics was able to decimate a large percentage of the force. The pattern diagram represents his surname. The 42 movements represent the authors age when he designed the pattern.
Moon-Moo honours the 30th king of the Silla Dynasty. His body was buried near Dae Wang Am (Great Kings Rock). According to his will, the body was placed in the sea "Where my soul shall forever defend my land against the Japanese". It is said that the Sok Gul Am (Stone Cave) was built to guard his tomb. The Sok Gul Am is fine example of the culture of the Silla Dynasty. The 61 movements in this pattern symbolise the last two figures of 661 AD when Moon-Moo came to the throne.
So-San is the pseudonym of the great monk Choi Hyung Ung, 1520 AD – 1604 AD, during the Yi Dynasty. The 72 movements refer to age when he organised a corps of monk soldiers with the assistance of his pupil Samung Dang. The monk soldiers helped repulse the Japanese pirates who overran most of the Korean peninsular in 1592 AD.
Se-Jong is named after the greatest Korean king, Se-Jong who invented the Korean alphabet in 1443 AD, and was also a noted meteorologist. The pattern diagram represents king, while the 24 movements refer to the 24 letters of the Korean alphabet.
Tong-Il denotes the resolution of the unification of Korea, which has been divided since 1945. The pattern diagram symbolises the homogenous race.